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Endemic Flora and Fauna in Indonesia

 Indonesia's Endemic Flora Fauna

1. Common name of Flora: Panggal Buaya
Taxon Levels in Classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. rhetsa

Distribution endemic areas in Indonesia or type of habitat: It grows in slightly dry areas and in annual forests or shrubs at an altitude of up to 500 m above sea level.  This species is spread in Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, and Papua.

Role for life : The young fruit is used as a spice.  In Java and Flores, the boiled water from the bark is drunk to treat malaria, diarrhea, and vomiting.  The wood is used as the basic material for making statues in Bali.

Preservation method: Cultivated with seeds and root fragments in the northern forest area which belongs to Gerokgak District, Buleleng Regency. This plant is cultivated on a small scale in the garden / yard.  Ex-situ conservation measures have been carried out at the Eka Karya Botanical Gardens, Bali.

2. Common name of Flora:  Ngalin / Bidaru
Taxon Levels in Classification:
Kingdom:  Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Thymelaeaceae
Genus: Gonystylus
Species: G. consanguineus

Distribution endemic areas in Indonesia or type of habitat: This plant is endemic to the island of Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah, and Sarawak).  Grows in primary forest or disturbed forest, on calcareous soil, clay and rocky soil, at an altitude of up to 400 m above sea level.

Role for life : Wood planks with a trunk texture are great for furniture, doors and windows.  In addition to boards, the wood is also used for sticks, chests, handicrafts, and kris handles. 

Preservation method: Illegal logging and conversion of forest areas to other uses are the cause of the decline in the population of this species in nature.  Prohibition of export of ramin logs and semi-finished through the Decree of the Minister of Forestry No.  1613-KPTS-IV/2001 was the first step in efforts to save these tree species, so that in 2004 all species in the Gonystylus genus were included in Appendix II of CITES.  Since then, various studies and conservation initiatives through nurseries have been carried out.

3. Common name of Fauna: Harimau Sumatra
Taxon Levels in Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Subspecies: P. t. sondaica

Distribution endemic areas in Indonesia or type of habitat: Sumatran tigers can basically live in a variety of habitat conditions, as long as the environment has adequate food supply, is able to provide protection, enough water and sunlight. 

Generally these animals are found in forest areas with an altitude of about 0 to 2,000 meters above sea level (asl). As the name implies, the Sumatran tiger can only live and form a habitat on the island of Sumatra. 

These animals usually live in conservation or protected areas.  But there are also some individuals who still survive in the wild forest, especially in the northern and western parts of Sumatra Island.

Role for life : The function of the Sumatran tiger as a top predator is to control the population of prey animals below it, if the tiger is lost, the prey animals such as deer and wild boar will breed without control.

This medicinal dough from dried tiger meat is known as a Chinese male tonic.  In fact, it is also believed by most other Southeast Asian people.  In addition to the meat, tiger nails are also believed to be used as a mixture of Chinese medicines.  Sumatran tiger skin for amulets and decoration.

Preservation method: In 2004, the Government of Indonesia declared an important area, Tesso Nilo, as a National Park to ensure a secure future for the Sumatran Tiger.

WWF is currently conducting groundbreaking research on Sumatran Tigers in Central Sumatra, using camera traps to estimate population size, habitat and distribution to identify wildlife corridors that require protection.  WWF has also deployed anti-poaching patrol teams and units working to reduce human-tiger conflict in local communities.

4. Common name of Fauna: Bekantan
Taxon Levels in Classification:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Subfamily: Colobinae
Genus: Nasalis
Species: N. larvatus

Distribution endemic areas in Indonesia or type of habitat: Proboscis monkeys are endemic monkeys that only live in South Kalimantan, especially on the outskirts of forests near rivers, peat swamp forests, freshwater swamp forests, mangrove forests and sometimes deep into the interior.

Role for life : In the forest, there are approximately 40 trees whose seed distribution is highly dependent on monkeys.  If these monkeys disappear, the trees that monkeys should be able to carry will also disappear.  If the tree is lost, the birds that perch there will also be lost. Proboscis monkeys are also endemic to the island of Borneo. 

This animal is used as the mascot (fauna identity) of the province of South Kalimantan based on the Decree of the Governor of South Kalimantan No.  29 of 1990 dated January 16, 1990. In addition, this animal has also become the mascot of Dunia Fantasi Ancol.

Preservation method: Activists carry out activities such as planting mangrove trees in riparian forest areas (the boundary between river/sea and land/settlement areas), which is the original habitat of proboscis monkeys, and conducting socialization actions to increase public attention to the conservation of proboscis monkeys.

In addition, proboscis monkey conservation is also carried out through in-situ and ex-situ conservation models. One of them is in the Mangrove and Proboscis Monkey Conservation Area (KKMB) Tarakan City.
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